Ieper city of peace
Hall - - Flemish Lakenhalle. The name comes from the Flemish word laken, meaning the high quality wool used for making fabrics. In the Middle Ages, there was the Ypres shopping center. They were a place of sale and storage of fabrics supplied here by a river channel called Ieperlee (or the Ypres canal).
At that time, the city was one of the leaders in fabric making among the cities of Flanders. The Cloth Hall consisted of a series of buildings surrounding a rectangular courtyard. Construction work was started already in 1200 year. They lasted over 100 years. The construction was finally completed in 1304 year. Until the middle of the 1840 year, a small river called Ieperlee was passing through the city.
The lower level of the Cloth Hall consisted of rooms with brick vaults. In order to make it easier for shoppers and customers to have access to the salons and shops, the hall has 48 doors on the southern façade facing the market. Cloths and wool were sold mainly in the cloths, but there were also days when merchants sold vegetables and goods here. On the floor the halls were also connected together. Some of them were more decorated than others. The roof at this level consisted of powerful wooden beams. Halls were used by merchants as storage rooms and as banquet rooms. City Council used them as meeting rooms.
In one of the main rooms the walls were decorated with 12 frescoes painted by Ferdinand Pauwels. They depicted scenes from the history of the city in the years 1187 to 1388. The remaining walls were decorated with paintings depicting the merchants painted by artist Louis Delbeke. The Council Hall was located in the north of the Cloth Hall, on the ground floor. Here the decor was particularly impressive.
Neuwerck is a building built in the years 1619-1622. It was built in Renaissance style. It has two upper floors, the first of which is connected to the upper floor of the gothic hall. In 1862 year renovation took place.
The oldest part of the hall is the bell tower. The foundation stone was built in 1201 a year by Count Flanders Baudin IX. The task of the bell tower was to inform about the imminent threat. It had three levels. The ground floor was used as a prison. Since the 14th century the belfry also served as a town hall. It also housed a treasury and armory.
The tower also contains a carillon consisting of 49 bells. It tunes every hour.
Ypres's firing began in November 1914. 22 November bombs fired by Germans completely destroyed the roof of the Cloth Hall. 19 April 1915 years German troops began a work of destruction from the vicinity of Houthulst. Using a new gun, named a Big Bertha, resumed firing the city. Shots of a diameter of 42 centimeters leveled to the groung entire city, including the Cloth Hall. Only part of the bell tower survived. All documents and works of art located in the cloth Hall were destroyed forever.
After the war in the year 1928, the restoration of the Cloth Hall was begun. It lasted until 1967 a year. Both the hall and the belfry were rebuilt according to their historical appearance. Thanks to this, the bell tower was declared on the UNESCO World Heritage List in 1999.
Church St. Martin is a copy of a Gothic episcopal church built in place of the Romanesque church of the X or XI century. Construction started in 1230 year. The work lasted until the year 1370.
The Cathedral is accessible to visitors outside the church services (Holy Masses 12.30-14.00). Inside the spacious aisle there are not many decorations. An exception is the rosette over the entrance to the southern transept (it is a tribute to Albert I, considered a national hero), and a side altar with a beautiful statue of the Virgin Mary of Thuyne.
In the cathedral there are tombs: Cornelius Jansen, bishop Ypres in the years 1635-1638, creator of the Jansenist theological movement, and Count Robert of Bethune called the Lion of Flanders.
The tower of the cathedral rises to the height of 100 meters. It is not open to tourists.
lapidary contains the ruins of deanery of St. Martin. There are large pieces of walls, leveled with the land of the Cathedral. They are a tangible evidence of the horrors and destruction that Ypres suffered during the First World War. The monastery building can be visited on the north side of the Cathedral.
Building of the Court- Main Market Square 1. Before World War I there was a Bishop's Palace. Then hospital was created here.
After the end of the war, the building was rebuilt in an eclectic style, designed by the architect responsible for the reconstruction of Ypres, Jules Coomans.
From the side of Torhoutstraat you can see the old entrance gate with the inscription Hopital Notre Dame. The whole wall survived the war and is one of the few examples of the original architecture of pre-war Ypres.
Commercial court building (fl. Kasstelrij) is located at the Main Market Square 10. The building was built in the Renaissance style in the 15th century. During this period the feudal counts of Flanders were divided into districts (Castellania). Managed by the Viscounts or castellans.
After the French Revolution in the 1790 year, the Castellan institution was abolished. In year 1800 the building was redeemed by the city and was called Hotel de Chatellenie. After the First World War the building was rebuilt in Renaissance style by J. Coomans. On the roof of the building were added three floors of seven dormers in a row.
To 1967 year the building was the Town Hall, which was moved to the rebuilt Cloth Hall. At present the Commercial Court is located here.
Monastery gate - Municipal Theater - the original gate (fl. Kloosterpoort) comes from about 1500 year. It is the entrance to the deanery of Saint. Martin, who was abolished in 1560 a year after the diocese of Ypres was announced. It was rebuilt in the classical style in 1780 year and renovated in 1938 year.
Municipal Theater (Fl. Stadsschouwburg) was initially used as a parish house. In 1803 he changed the owner and created a theater here. During the First World War, like most buildings in Ypres, it was completely destroyed. Rebuilt in the 1930s.
Memorials to the victims of World War I and II in Ieper
Monument to the victims of World War I dedicated to 155 civilian victims and hundreds of thousands of soldiers who lost their lives as a result of World War I. The monument was designed by architect Jules Homere Martin Coomans (1871-1937) in 1924 years.
He was also responsible for the reconstruction of Ypres, in a traditional, historical style, after the war. In the years 1924-1926 the statue was made by a sculptor from Ghent Alois De Beule (1861-1935).
Initially Coomans planned to place the monument in the east wing of the Cloth Hall.
In the 2010 year, a new plaque was placed and dedicated to this monument to the victims of both the First and Second World Wars.
HERE ARE RECORDED NAMES
OF OFFICERS AND MEN WHO FELL
IN YPRES SALIENT BUT TO WHOM
THE FORTUNE OF WAR DENIED
THE KNOWN AND HONOURED BURIAL
GIVEN TO THEIR COMRADES
OF THE BRITISH EMPIRE
WHO STOOD HERE
FROM 1914 TO 1918
AND TO THOSE OF THEIR DEAD
WHO HAVE NO KNOWN GRAVE
Today the Menin Gate Memorial is one of the most famous war memorials in the world. It is also probably the only monument at which daily celebrations take place. They always have room at 20. This ceremony was inaugurated 1 August 1928 year.
It was an expression of gratitude for all the soldiers who fought in Ypres, especially those whose graves were never found. The tradition of the last post was interrupted for 4 years during the Second World War. On the day of the liberation of Ypres, by the General Maczek Division, the tradition of homage to the fallen soldiers was returned. The celebration starts with a minute of silence. The ceremony is attended by both residents and tourists. During the ceremony, the car traffic through the gate is closed.
New Zealanders 14
http://www.greatwar.co.uk/places/ypres-salient-cemeteries.htm This is a very detailed and interesting website describing the warfare conducted at Ieper during I World War.