a term used in art history to describe pre-Renaissance and early Renaissance painting of the 15th and early 16th centuries. This common name of Flemish painters, in Polish language, it can be hurting, because whether primitive, in the Polish sense of the word, would be able to create such paintings as those painted by Jan Van Eyck, Hieronymus Bosch or other geniuses of painting ?.
They are also the creators of the Renaissance of the North, which is an outstanding version of the Renaissance, which was born on the other side of the Alps, in Italy. Robert Campin is a forerunner of this style in then Netherlands and his most eminent representatives were, among others:
* Jan van Eyck (1390-1441)
* Rogier van der Weyden (1400-1464)
* Petrus Christus (1410-1476)
* Hans Memling (1435-1494)
* Hugo van der Goes (1440-1482)
* Hieronim Bosch (1450-1516)
* Gerard David (1460-1532)
Jan van Eyck as one of the few in those times signed images with his name and motto:
Als ick kann (As I can)
It is believed that this brilliant creator of such works as: The altar of the Mystical Lamb, Portrait of the Arnolfini couple, Madonna Chancellor Rolin whether The Madonna of canon van der Paele, as one of the first European painters of the 15th century, who began to use oil technique in his paintings. It guaranteed the effect of brightness, because oil binders shine more intensely than the matt temer used in the past. In oil technique, the paint is mixed with the oil directly on the pallet, and then applied to the canvas with a brush or putty knife.
In Dutch painting of this period religious themes dominate. The background plays a very important role, filled with vast landscapes, architecture and city views. You can see the extraordinary attention to detail when presenting the interiors of houses, clothes of figures, fabrics, animals. The basic feature of the background is the far-reaching autonomy, spatiality and naturalism of individual elements and characters placed on further planes, even when the background figure is visible in a small fragment.